Origins and early history: late antiquity -- Under early Islam: the period of the geonim and the Geniza -- The Birkat haminim in Europe of the High Middle Ages -- Living with censorship: early modern realities -- The modern period: changes by choice to the text -- -- Appendix 1. Geniza texts of the Birkat haminim -- Appendix 2. Evidence for the Birkat haminim in the pre-Sephardized rites of the Muslim world -- Appendix 3. Uncensored Medieval European texts of the Birkat haminim -- Appendix 4. Censored texts of the Birkat haminim, 1550 to the present -- Appendix 5. Texts of the liberal movements.